western civilization countries

[failed verification][7][8]. [31], The term "Western culture" is used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, religious beliefs, political systems, and specific artifacts and technologies. The Bible itself is responsible for much of the language, literature, and fine arts we enjoy today as its artists and composers were heavily influenced by its writings. [citation needed], Ancient Rome (753 BC – AD 476) was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula about the 8th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. The Eastern Roman Empire surviving the fall of the Western protected Roman legal and cultural traditions, combining them with Greek and Christian elements, for another thousand years. [45] This paved the way for Muslim conquests in present-day Turkey and the Balkans in the coming centuries (only a handful of the Crusaders followed to the stated destination thereafter, the Holy Land). Christianization of Ireland (5th century), Christianization of Bulgaria (9th century), Christianization of Kievan Rus' (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus; 10th century), Christianization of Scandinavia (Denmark, Norway, Sweden; 12th century) and Christianization of Lithuania (14th century) brought the rest of present-day European territory into Western civilization. Huntington divided the world into the "major civilizations" in his thesis as such: Western civilization, comprising the United States and Canada, Western and Central Europe, Australia, Oceania and most of the Philippines. There followed the discovery of the American continent, and consequent dissolution of West Christendom as even a theoretical unitary political body, later resulting in the religious Eighty Years War (1568–1648) and Thirty Years War (1618–1648) between various Protestant and Catholic states of the Holy Roman Empire (and emergence of religiously diverse confessions). The Third World consisted of countries, many of which were unaligned with either, and important members included India, Yugoslavia, Finland (Finlandization) and Switzerland (Swiss Neutrality); some include the People's Republic of China, though this is disputed, since the People's Republic of China, as communist, had friendly relations—at certain times—with the Soviet bloc, and had a significant degree of importance in global geopolitics. According to Samuel P. Huntington, some countries are torn on whether they are Western or not, with typically the national leadership pushing for Westernization, while historical, cultural and traditional forces remain largely non-Western. Meanwhile, the Ottoman Turks consolidated control over the eastern Mediterranean, closing off key overland trade routes. [67], Parliament building, Portugal (1598–1938), Former Parliament building, Ireland (1729–96), Parliament building, United States (1783-1800), Parliament building, United Kingdom (1840–76), Parliament building, Switzerland (1852-1902), Parliament building, South Africa (1875–84), Parliament building, Colombia (1876-1926), Parliament building, Argentina (1896-1906), Parliament building, Guatemala (1926-1934), Abbey of Santa Giustina, Italy (1501–1606), St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City (1506-1626), St Paul's Cathedral, United Kingdom (1677-1708), Basilica-Cathedral of Our Lady of the Pillar, Spain (1681–1872), Basilica of St. John the Baptist, Canada (1839–55), Cathedral of Saint John the Divine, United States (1892–present), Westminster Cathedral, United Kingdom (1895–1910), Before the urbanisation and industrialization of the 1800s, demand for oriental goods such as porcelain, silk, spices and tea remained the driving force behind European imperialism in Asia, and (with the important exception of British East India Company rule in India) the European stake in Asia remained confined largely to trading stations and strategic outposts necessary to protect trade. [68] Industrialisation, however, dramatically increased European demand for Asian raw materials; and the severe Long Depression of the 1870s provoked a scramble for new markets for European industrial products and financial services in Africa, the Americas, Eastern Europe, and especially in Asia (Western powers exploited their advantages in China for example by the Opium Wars). More than half of the people in Western countries claim that religion is important, and most of them identify with Christianity. To Europeans, the Western world used to be a literal geographical term, separating … Historically, Latin America has been only Catholic, although this is changing due to the influx of Protestants into the region. Despite this, Christianity, in its different forms, remains the largest faith in most Western countries.[96]. [5][b] The Western world is also known as the Occident (from the Latin word occidens, "sunset, West"), in contrast to the Orient (from the Latin word oriens, "rise, East") or Eastern world. The west displayed its cultural products as well. [40], The Roman Empire is where the idea of "the West" began to emerge. [88][89][90] By August 2014, both sides had implemented economic, financial, and diplomatic sanctions upon each other: virtually all Western countries, led by the US and EU, imposed restrictive measures on Russia; the latter reciprocally introduced retaliatory measures. [citation needed] [30] Whether Russia should be categorized as "East" or "West" has been "an ongoing discussion" for centuries. Palestinian-American literary critic Edward Said uses the term occident in his discussion of orientalism. Western civilization survives! [82][87] Tensions escalated in 2014 after Russia's annexation of Crimea, military intervention in Ukraine, and the 2015 Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War. [97] A 2011 Pew Research Center survey found that 76.2% of Europeans, 73.3% in Oceania, and about 86.0% in the Americas (90% in Latin America and 77.4% in North America) described themselves as Christians. [78][79] The dictum of Alfred Thayer Mahan is shown to have lasting relevance, that whoever controls the seas controls the world. Nonetheless, despite its great legacy, a number of factors led to the eventual decline and fall of the Roman Empire. The name Byzantine Empire was used after the Byzantine Empire ended, the inhabitants calling themselves Romans since the term “Roman” was meant to signify all Christians. Map showing relative degree of religiosity by country. Some widen the term to include Latin America and other countries around the world that descended from European culture. In the UK, 59% of the population identify themselves as Christians and attend primary functions in church, such as Easter and Christmas. It continued with the rise of the Dutch East India Company by the destabilising Spanish discovery of the New World, and the creation and expansion of the English and French colonial empires, and others. In this context, the Protestant Reformation (1517) may be viewed as a schism within the Catholic Church. Now it is remaking the Continent", Russia Between East and West: Perceptions and Reality, s:Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers: Series II/Volume VI/The Letters of St. Jerome/Letter 127, "On this day in AD 455: the beginning of the end for Rome", "Alaric, Barbarians and Rome: a Complicated Relationship", "How the West Won: The Neglected Story of the Triumph of Modernity", "Vodič kroz svet Vizantije (Guide to the Byzantine World)", "Background to Against the Sale of Indulgences by Martin Luther", "How important was the role of the princes in bringing about the success of the Lutheran Reformation in Germany in the years 1525 to 1555? [101] Wikipedia is blocked intermittently in China since 2004. In this definition, Western culture is the set of literary, scientific, political, artistic, and philosophical principles that set it apart from other civilizations. Western culture and civilization showed their mettle as well! His theories are rooted in Hegel's master-slave dialectic: The Occident would not exist without the Orient and vice versa. Decline of the Byzantine Empire (13th–15th centuries) began with the Latin Christian Fourth Crusade in AD 1202–04, considered to be one of the most important events, solidifying the schism between the Christian churches of Greek Byzantine Rite and Latin Roman Rite. The source of the capability of these western civilizations to impact other regions of the world comes from their political philosophies. Division of the Roman Empire after 395 into western and eastern part. The name is used despite several countries that may be culturally Western, but nonetheless developing countries. [76] At its apex, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" described the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun always shone on at least one of its territories. [citation needed], The Roman Empire succeeded the approximately 500-year-old Roman Republic (c. 510 BC – 30 BC), which had been weakened by the conflict between Gaius Marius and Sulla and the civil war of Julius Caesar against Pompey and Marcus Brutus. Lambchop is a group that takes an obvious pride in working on a grand scale -- this is a band that's swelled to as many as 16 members at times and in 2004 released two full-length albums on the same day -- so it should come as no surprise that they've come up with more worthwhile material than they've found room for on their LPs. [i][j][k] The European colonization of the Americas led to the Atlantic slave trade between the 1490s and the 1800s, which also contributed to the development of African intertribal warfare and racist ideology. A series of scholars of civilization, including Arnold J. Toynbee, Alfred Kroeber and Carroll Quigley have identified and analyzed "Western civilization" as one of the civilizations that have historically existed and still exist today. Since the Renaissance, the West evolved beyond the influence of the ancient Greeks and Romans and the Islamic world, due to the successful Second Agricultural, Commercial,[26] Scientific,[27] and Industrial[28] revolutions (propellers of modern banking concepts). Some regions in Latin America incorporate indigenous cultures, which did not exist in Europe and were effectively annihilated in the United States, and whose importance oscillates between two extremes: Mexico, Central America, Paraguay, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, on the one hand, and Uruguay, Brazil, Chile and Argentina on the other. It is largely accepted that the origin of Western civilization is ancient Greece and ancient Rome. Modern Western civilization, after all, is a relatively recent phenomenon that arose through the fusion of Roman and Christian ideas in Europe during the Medieval Era. But these journeys had little permanent effect on east–west trade because of a series of political developments in Asia in the last decades of the 14th century, which put an end to further European exploration of Asia: namely the new Ming rulers were found to be unreceptive of religious proselytism by European missionaries and merchants. [citation needed]. Before AD 1100, the Catholic Church suppressed what they believed to be heresy, usually through a system of ecclesiastical proscription or imprisonment, but without using torture,[48] and seldom resorting to executions. [citation needed], In modern usage, Western world refers to Europe and to areas whose populations largely originate from Europe, through the Age of Discovery's imperialism. [44] What followed dealt an irrevocable blow to the already weakened Byzantine Empire with the Crusader army's sack of Constantinople in April 1204, capital of the Greek Christian-controlled Byzantine Empire, described as one of the most profitable and disgraceful sacks of a city in history. [9] In the modern era, Western culture has been heavily influenced by the Renaissance, the Ages of Discovery and Enlightenment and the Industrial and Scientific Revolutions. 10 Of The Most Notorious Serial Killers In The World. These are seen as fostering the 19th century Western world's sustained economic development. The charting of oceanic routes between East and West began with the unprecedented voyages of Portuguese and Spanish sea captains. Some say: "Yes, we are part of the West." [103][104][105][106][107], American political scientist, adviser and academic Samuel P. Huntington considered Latin America as separate from the Western world for the purpose of his geopolitical analysis. “Western nations are not going to collapse, but the smooth operation and friendly nature of Western society will disappear, because inequity is going to explode,” Randers argues. Congress. The result was a series of western European military campaigns into the eastern Mediterranean, known as the Crusades. Its movement was affected by the influence of the Byzantine empire and the fluctuating power and influence of the Catholic church in Rome. Multinational corporations came to offer "a dramatic refinement of the traditional business enterprise", through "issues as far ranging as national sovereignty, ownership of the means of production, environmental protection, consumerism, and policies toward organized labor." Christianity has been historically intertwined with Western civilization. English and Dutch colonies, on the other hand, tended to be more religiously diverse. Over time, their associated empires grew first to the east and west to include the rest of Mediterranean and Black Sea coastal areas, conquering and absorbing. [60], This process of influence (and imposition) began with the voyages of discovery, colonization, conquest, and exploitation of Portugal enforced as well by papal bulls in 1450s (by the fall of the Byzantine Empire), granting Portugal navigation, war and trade monopoly for any newly discovered lands,[61] and competing Spanish navigators. By Rome's central location at the heart of the Empire, "West" and "East" were terms used to denote provinces west and east of the capital itself. Subcommittee on Multinational Corporations, Learn how and when to remove this template message, building designs and proportions and architecture, populations have had a large presence of particular European ethnic groups, immigration of Europeans in the 20th century, civil wars, corruption, and devastating Germanic invasions, Roman Catholic and Eastern Greek Orthodox, including the heart of the Byzantine Empire, Western European colonialism and colonization, member states of the Commonwealth of Nations, 2015 Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), "9780500040034: The Birth of Western Civilization: Greece and Rome", "Athens. Through its long history, the Church has been a major source of social services such as schooling. According to Pew Research Center, in 2011, they found that 86% of the people of the Americas, 73.5% from Oceania, and 76.2% of Europeans identify themselves as Christians. [citation needed], The then Hellenic division between the barbarians (term used by Ancient Greeks for all non-Greek-speaking people) and the Greeks contrasted in many societies the Greek-speaking culture of the Greek settlements around the Mediterranean to the surrounding non-Greek cultures. [73], Between the 1870s and 1914 (the so-called Beautiful Era, socioeconomically optimistic and innovative decades of the Second Industrial Revolution), the established colonial powers in Asia (United Kingdom, France, Netherlands) added to their empires also vast expanses of territory in the Indian Subcontinent and South East Asia. [91][92], The exact scope of the Western world is somewhat subjective in nature, depending on whether cultural, economic, spiritual or political criteria are employed. 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Western culture is commonly said to include: Australia and New Zealand, Canada, all European member countries of the EFTA and EU, the European microstates, the NATO military alliance, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The Greeks also dedicated their whole lives to … Which Countries Are Part Of Western Asia? This Occident-Orient binary focuses on the Western vision of the East instead of any truths about the East. [citation needed]. The East continued to call themselves Eastern Romans even after AD 610 – 800 when the official language of the empire was Latin, and the Pope crowned Charlemagne as Emperor of the Romans. With the discovery of the American continent or 'New World' in 1492–1493, the European colonial Age of Discovery and exploration was born, revisiting an imperialistic view accompanied by the invention of firearms, while marking the start of the Modern Era. The name is often used to differentiate the developed countries and the developing countries, also known as the Third World. [36], In AD 395, a few decades before its Western collapse, the Roman Empire formally split into a Western and an Eastern one, each with their own emperors, capitals, and governments, although ostensibly they still belonged to one formal Empire. The Eastern Roman Empire included lands south-west of the Black Sea and bordering on the Eastern Mediterranean and parts of the Adriatic Sea. Starting from the 15th century and through to the 20th century, Western powers carried out extensive colonization and later engaged in mass culture exportation to other countries. [citation needed], Ancient Greek civilization had been growing in the first millennium BC into wealthy poleis, so-called city-states (geographically loose political entities which in time, inevitably end giving way to larger organisations of society, including the empire and the nation-state)[33] such as Athens, Sparta, Thebes, and Corinth, by Middle and Near Eastern ones (Sumerian cities such as Uruk and Ur; Ancient Egyptian city-states, such as Thebes and Memphis; the Phoenician Tyre and Sidon; the five Philistine city-states; the Berber city-states of the Garamantes). In areas such as Canada, there is a low level of religiosity because of secularization in the same way it has happened in Europe. Although it is a scion of European (mainly Spanish and Portuguese) civilization, it also incorporates, to an extent, elements of indigenous American civilizations, absent from North America and Europe. During these struggles hundreds of senators were killed, and the Roman Senate had been refilled with loyalists[vague] of the First Triumvirate and later those of the Second Triumvirate. 59% in the United Kingdom) and attend church on major occasions, such as Christmas and Easter. [97][98][99][100] The Philippines is in a unique situation where although; except for the very significant minority, the majority population is little to no European base, the culture is very western based. The anachronistic application of those terms to that division entails a stark logical contradiction, given that the term "West" has been used to distinguish Latin-speaking peoples from their Greek-speaking neighbors. Privatization policies (involving government enterprises and public services) and multinational corporations are often considered a visible sign of Western nations's economic presence, especially in Third World countries, and represent common institutional environment for powerful politicians, enterprises, trade unions and firms, bankers and thinkers of the Western world. The Western countries refer to countries mainly in Europe, the Americas, and Australasia. The United States, following the Spanish–American War in 1898, quickly emerged as the new imperial power in East Asia and in the Pacific Ocean area. The Dalmatia remained under Venice domination throughout next centuries (even constituting an Italian territorial claim by the, Portuguese sailors began exploring the coast of Africa and the Atlantic archipelagos in 1418–19, using recent developments in navigation, cartography and maritime technology such as the, In the 16th century, the Portuguese broke the (overland) Medieval monopoly of the Arabs and Italians of trade (goods and slaves) between Asia and. Italy itself was considered central, until the reforms of Diocletian dividing the Empire into true two halves: Eastern and Western. spatial phenomenon they call Western Civilization.6 Secondly, the idea that Western civilization begins with the classical world presents certain geopolitical problems. [citation needed], The dissolution of the Western half (nominally in AD 476, but in truth a long process that ended by AD 800) left only the Eastern Roman Empire alive. [citation needed], Some tendencies that define modern Western societies are the existence of political pluralism, secularism, generalization of middle class, prominent subcultures or countercultures (such as New Age movements), increasing cultural syncretism resulting from globalization and human migration. The traditional Japanese society was virtually overturned into an industrial and militarist power like Western countries such as the United Kingdom and the French Third Republic, and similar to the German Empire and Russian Empire. English Great Britain is one of the most notable, though Aragonian-Castilian Spain, Prussian Germany and Sardinian Italy are also examples. Western culture was influenced by many older civilizations of the ancient Near East,[17] such as Phoenicia, Ancient Israel,[18][19][9] Minoan Crete, Sumer, Babylonia, and also Ancient Egypt. Countries has been declining, particularly in Italy, Portugal, and Southeastern.. 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