Adam J. Lv 6. list of the same length as margin, each element of the list being either a function or a list of functions. Instead, you need a package called modeest in your library. The steps to change margins remain the same. Margin can be even greater than 2, if we work with variables of dimension greater than two. Use the Ruler to Adjust Margins in Word . The apply() family pertains to the R base package and is populated with functions to manipulate slices of data from matrices, arrays, lists and dataframes in a repetitive way. To learn more, launch our online finance courses now! Usage margin.table(x, margin) Arguments. I have been confused with sweep many times in the past but I think you are confused with apply.. Depreciation and amortization total $100,000. –function is the function you want to apply to the elements of your variable. If your account falls below the maintenance margin… What if instead, I wanted to find n-1 for each column? These functions allow crossing the data in a number of ways and avoid explicit use of loop constructs. It is calculated by dividing the operating profit by total revenue and expressing as a percentage. So 1 stands for rows and 2 for columns. It is fairly straightforward to set the margins of a graph in R by calling the par() function with the mar (for margin!) Using apply in R. We start with the godfather of the family, apply, which operates on arrays (for simplicity we limit here to 2D arrays, aka, matrices). Gross margin is a company's net sales revenue minus its cost of goods sold (COGS). The default value is 1. yes/no. For example, to buy stock on margin, you must have at least 50% of the purchase price in your account. Any possible(*) combination of the dimensions of 'x' in apply(x, margin, function) (*) non-null. … Margin Calls A margin call occurs when the investments in the account and the cash decrease in value and fall below the minimum maintenance margin amount. The Apply family comprises: apply, lapply , sapply, vapply, mapply, rapply, and tapply. AccountingTools . MARGIN: We want to apply the operation by row. margin.table {base} R Documentation: Compute table margin Description. The margins are numbered the same way as in the apply() function. Details. Value. Similarly, the phase margin is the difference between the phase of the response and –180° when the loop gain is 1.0. Answer Save. EBITDA Margin = EBITDA / Net Sales . margin. Below are a few basic uses of this powerful function as well as one of it’s sister functions lapply. How to calculate proportions . If n is 0, the result has length 0 but not necessarily the ‘correct’ dimension. Profit margin gauges the degree to which a company or a business activity makes money, essentially by dividing income by revenues. LMN company declared a net profit, before taxes and interest, of $3M for year-end 2015. Apply a function to each cell of a ragged array, that is to each (non-empty) group of values given by a unique combination of the levels of certain factors. yes/no. INDEX. 8 Answers. If the calls to FUN return vectors of different lengths, apply returns a list of length prod(dim(X)[MARGIN]) with dim set to MARGIN if this has length greater than one. The … How to change font size of text and axes on R plots. After you determine the cost of a product, you can subtract this from the sales price to get the net profit. Gm is the amount of gain variance required to make the loop gain unity at the frequency Wcg where the phase angle is –180° (modulo 360°). I present it here in its original form. The figure can vary dramatically by . Margins are formed in the order in which dimensions are specified in margin. But why? The apply function in R is used as a fast and simple alternative to loops. There are properties for setting the margin for each side of an element (top, right, bottom, and left). In the length-1 case, can be a function instead of a list of one. Value. For example, par(mar=c(5.1,4.1,4.1,2.1) sets the bottom, left, top and right margins respectively of the plot region in number of lines of text. Favorite Answer. Apply for option trading with this account. In the case of apply(), there is no difference. what does this mean? The Family of Apply functions pertains to the R base package, and is populated with functions to manipulate slices of data from matrices, arrays, lists and data frames in a repetitive way.Apply Function in R are designed to avoid explicit use of loop constructs. If n is 0, the result has length 0 but not necessarily the “correct” dimension. Keywords iteration, category. Similar functions include lapply(), sapply(), mapply() and tapply().These functions are more efficient than loops when handling data in batch. The margin argument takes a number or a vector of numbers, but it can be a bit confusing. apply() function applies a function to margins of an array or matrix. If the calls to FUN return vectors of different lengths, apply returns a list of length prod(dim(X)[MARGIN]) with dim set to MARGIN if this has length greater than one. Usage tapply(X, INDEX, FUN = NULL, …, default = NA, simplify = TRUE) Arguments X. an R object for which a split method exists. x: an array: margin: index number (1 for rows, etc.) –margin specifies if you want to apply by row (margin = 1), by column (margin = 2), or for each element (margin = 1:2). In other words, the gain margin is 1/g if g is the gain at the –180° phase frequency. In Word Online, Word 2010 and Word 2007, the Layout tab is labeled as Page Layout. 1 decade ago. The initial margin requirement is set by federal law and varies from product to product. This is really just apply(x,margin,sum) packaged up for newbies. If each call to FUN returns a vector of length n, then apply returns an array of dimension c(n,dim(x)[MARGIN]) if n > 1.If n equals 1, apply returns a vector if MARGIN has length 1 and an array of dimension dim(x)[MARGIN] otherwise.. If the margin property has two values: margin: 10px 5px; top and bottom margins are 10px; right and left margins are 5px; If the margin property has one value: margin: 10px; all four margins are 10px; Note: Negative values are allowed. Relevance. Edit: This post originally appeared on my WordPress blog on September 20, 2009. It allows users to apply a function to a vector or data frame by row, by column or to the entire data frame. Dividing that net profit by the sales price gives you the sales margin as a percentage. FUN: list of the same length as margin, each element of the list being either a function or a list of functions. Table 2: Example Matrix After Simple Application of sweep in R. As you can see, all zeros where replaced by 5. Typically vector-like, allowing subsetting with [. Therefore, a high ratio can result from: Efficient management; Low costs (expenses) Strong pricing strategies . Default value: 0: Inherited: no: Animatable: yes, see individual properties. Margin is the money borrowed from a broker to purchase an investment and is the difference between the total value of investment and the loan amount. To change the font size of text elements, use cex (short for character expansion ratio). A high net profit margin means that a company is able to effectively control its costs and/or provide goods or services at a price significantly higher than its costs. Buying on margin amplifies both gains and losses. To reduce the text size, use a cex value of less than 1; to increase the text size, use a cex value greater than 1. If the calls to FUN return vectors of different lengths, apply returns a list of length dim(x)[MARGIN].. See Also. The horizontal ruler displayed below the Word menu provides another way to change the margins in your document. R apply Functions. Gross margin is a company’s net sales minus its cost of goods sold . To apply a predefined margin, select Layout > Margins and choose the predefined margin you want to use. Compute the sum of table entries over a given index. Margins are formed in the order in which dimensions are specified in margin. The gross margin reveals the amount that a business earns from the sale of its products and services, before the deduction of any selling and administrative expenses . There isn’t a function in R to do this automatically, so I can create my own function. There are other functions in the apply family (sapply, mapply, rollapply, etc.) (On the Packages tab, select Install, and then in the Install dialog box, type modeest in the Packages box and click Install. Base R does have a function called mode(), but it’s for something much different. The MARGIN argument means exactly the same thing in both functions and that is row-wise operation. argument. … Expressed as a percentage, profit margin … Buying on margin means you are investing with borrowed money. Sales margin is calculated the same way that gross profit margin, also known as margin, is. Sometimes it's used when a simpler function would have sufficed (e.g., apply), other times, it's impossible to know exactly what it's is doing without spending a fair amount of time to step through the code block it's in. Because we are using columns, MARGIN = 2. apply(my.matrx, 2, length) ## [1] 10 10 10. All possible values for margin? vector of dimensions over which to form margins. Net sales reported in the income statement shows an amount of $5M. CSS Margins. I am printing the matrix below so that it is easy to visually compare with apply and sweep later on: > m [,1] [,2] [1,] 1 4 [2,] 2 5 [3,] 3 6 If the function is simple, you can create it right inside the arguments for apply. When I look at the source of R Packages, i see the function sweep used quite often. To add the column margin, you need to set margin to 2, but this column margin contains the row totals. margin: vector of dimensions over which to form margins. Rui Barradas Hello, 2L is an integer, 2 might be or not. Let’s go through the code step by step: x: Our example matrix, which is called data. The apply() Family. Apply for margin within this account. Names of the list elements will appear as levels in dimnames of the result. Example Calculation. If n equals 1, apply returns a vector if MARGIN has length 1 and an array of dimension dim(X)[MARGIN] otherwise. The relevant marginal table. The R Function of the Day series will focus on describing in plain language how certain R functions work, focusing on simple examples that you can apply to gain insight into your own data.. Today, I will discuss the tapply function. If n equals 1, apply returns a vector if MARGIN has length 1 and an array of dimension dim(X)[MARGIN] otherwise. After the initial transaction, maintenance rules set by the self-regulatory organizations, such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and NASD, apply. Margin: Allows you to borrow money from your broker to invest with the money you place into your account as collateral. R tapply, lapply, sapply, apply, mapply functions usage. FUN. The CSS margin properties are used to create space around elements, outside of any defined borders.. With CSS, you have full control over the margins. 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