# what is margin in apply r

It allows users to apply a function to a vector or data frame by row, by column or to the entire data frame. This is really just apply(x,margin,sum) packaged up for newbies. The initial margin requirement is set by federal law and varies from product to product. In Word Online, Word 2010 and Word 2007, the Layout tab is labeled as Page Layout. The relevant marginal table. Gm is the amount of gain variance required to make the loop gain unity at the frequency Wcg where the phase angle is –180° (modulo 360°). The margins are numbered the same way as in the apply() function. There are properties for setting the margin for each side of an element (top, right, bottom, and left). It is fairly straightforward to set the margins of a graph in R by calling the par() function with the mar (for margin!) There isn’t a function in R to do this automatically, so I can create my own function. R tapply, lapply, sapply, apply, mapply functions usage. Apply for margin within this account. EBITDA Margin = EBITDA / Net Sales . Value. argument. (On the Packages tab, select Install, and then in the Install dialog box, type modeest in the Packages box and click Install. If each call to FUN returns a vector of length n, then apply returns an array of dimension c(n,dim(x)[MARGIN]) if n > 1.If n equals 1, apply returns a vector if MARGIN has length 1 and an array of dimension dim(x)[MARGIN] otherwise.. After you determine the cost of a product, you can subtract this from the sales price to get the net profit. The default value is 1. Dividing that net profit by the sales price gives you the sales margin as a percentage. Apply for option trading with this account. In other words, the gain margin is 1/g if g is the gain at the –180° phase frequency. LMN company declared a net profit, before taxes and interest, of \$3M for year-end 2015. To add the column margin, you need to set margin to 2, but this column margin contains the row totals. If the calls to FUN return vectors of different lengths, apply returns a list of length dim(x)[MARGIN].. See Also. Gross margin is a company’s net sales minus its cost of goods sold . The R Function of the Day series will focus on describing in plain language how certain R functions work, focusing on simple examples that you can apply to gain insight into your own data.. Today, I will discuss the tapply function. If the margin property has two values: margin: 10px 5px; top and bottom margins are 10px; right and left margins are 5px; If the margin property has one value: margin: 10px; all four margins are 10px; Note: Negative values are allowed. yes/no. Using apply in R. We start with the godfather of the family, apply, which operates on arrays (for simplicity we limit here to 2D arrays, aka, matrices). To change the font size of text elements, use cex (short for character expansion ratio). Instead, you need a package called modeest in your library. MARGIN: We want to apply the operation by row. Usage margin.table(x, margin) Arguments. R apply Functions. Let’s go through the code step by step: x: Our example matrix, which is called data. If the calls to FUN return vectors of different lengths, apply returns a list of length prod(dim(X)[MARGIN]) with dim set to MARGIN if this has length greater than one. Below are a few basic uses of this powerful function as well as one of it’s sister functions lapply. In the case of apply(), there is no difference. The figure can vary dramatically by . To reduce the text size, use a cex value of less than 1; to increase the text size, use a cex value greater than 1. Because we are using columns, MARGIN = 2. apply(my.matrx, 2, length) ##  10 10 10. The Family of Apply functions pertains to the R base package, and is populated with functions to manipulate slices of data from matrices, arrays, lists and data frames in a repetitive way.Apply Function in R are designed to avoid explicit use of loop constructs. Gross margin is a company's net sales revenue minus its cost of goods sold (COGS). To learn more, launch our online finance courses now! Relevance. The … If your account falls below the maintenance margin… But why? apply() function applies a function to margins of an array or matrix. Depreciation and amortization total \$100,000. list of the same length as margin, each element of the list being either a function or a list of functions. If n equals 1, apply returns a vector if MARGIN has length 1 and an array of dimension dim(X)[MARGIN] otherwise. A high net profit margin means that a company is able to effectively control its costs and/or provide goods or services at a price significantly higher than its costs. 8 Answers. vector of dimensions over which to form margins. Base R does have a function called mode(), but it’s for something much different. If the calls to FUN return vectors of different lengths, apply returns a list of length prod(dim(X)[MARGIN]) with dim set to MARGIN if this has length greater than one. FUN: list of the same length as margin, each element of the list being either a function or a list of functions. The steps to change margins remain the same. Margins are formed in the order in which dimensions are specified in margin. What if instead, I wanted to find n-1 for each column? Adam J. Lv 6. Keywords iteration, category. Margin is the money borrowed from a broker to purchase an investment and is the difference between the total value of investment and the loan amount. How to change font size of text and axes on R plots. Margins are formed in the order in which dimensions are specified in margin. margin. Similar functions include lapply(), sapply(), mapply() and tapply().These functions are more efficient than loops when handling data in batch. Margin can be even greater than 2, if we work with variables of dimension greater than two. 1 decade ago. … I present it here in its original form. Net sales reported in the income statement shows an amount of \$5M. The apply() Family. I am printing the matrix below so that it is easy to visually compare with apply and sweep later on: > m [,1] [,2] [1,] 1 4 [2,] 2 5 [3,] 3 6 FUN. Apply a function to each cell of a ragged array, that is to each (non-empty) group of values given by a unique combination of the levels of certain factors. Usage tapply(X, INDEX, FUN = NULL, …, default = NA, simplify = TRUE) Arguments X. an R object for which a split method exists. AccountingTools . Margin: Allows you to borrow money from your broker to invest with the money you place into your account as collateral. Table 2: Example Matrix After Simple Application of sweep in R. As you can see, all zeros where replaced by 5. yes/no. The CSS margin properties are used to create space around elements, outside of any defined borders.. With CSS, you have full control over the margins. Edit: This post originally appeared on my WordPress blog on September 20, 2009. Use the Ruler to Adjust Margins in Word . There are other functions in the apply family (sapply, mapply, rollapply, etc.) The gross margin reveals the amount that a business earns from the sale of its products and services, before the deduction of any selling and administrative expenses . Favorite Answer. If the function is simple, you can create it right inside the arguments for apply. Names of the list elements will appear as levels in dimnames of the result. All possible values for margin? –margin specifies if you want to apply by row (margin = 1), by column (margin = 2), or for each element (margin = 1:2). Therefore, we set MARGIN = 1. After the initial transaction, maintenance rules set by the self-regulatory organizations, such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and NASD, apply. what does this mean? How to calculate proportions . If n is 0, the result has length 0 but not necessarily the “correct” dimension. Sales margin is calculated the same way that gross profit margin, also known as margin, is. Typically vector-like, allowing subsetting with [. The margin argument takes a number or a vector of numbers, but it can be a bit confusing. Margin Calls A margin call occurs when the investments in the account and the cash decrease in value and fall below the minimum maintenance margin amount. When I look at the source of R Packages, i see the function sweep used quite often. Operating Profit Margin is a profitability or performance ratio that reflects the percentage of profit a company produces from its operations, prior to subtracting taxes and interest charges. It is calculated by dividing the operating profit by total revenue and expressing as a percentage. The MARGIN argument means exactly the same thing in both functions and that is row-wise operation. Value. I have been confused with sweep many times in the past but I think you are confused with apply.. For example, par(mar=c(5.1,4.1,4.1,2.1) sets the bottom, left, top and right margins respectively of the plot region in number of lines of text. Therefore, a high ratio can result from: Efficient management; Low costs (expenses) Strong pricing strategies . Profit margin gauges the degree to which a company or a business activity makes money, essentially by dividing income by revenues. Similarly, the phase margin is the difference between the phase of the response and –180° when the loop gain is 1.0. Expressed as a percentage, profit margin … Any possible(*) combination of the dimensions of 'x' in apply(x, margin, function) (*) non-null. In the length-1 case, can be a function instead of a list of one. Sometimes it's used when a simpler function would have sufficed (e.g., apply), other times, it's impossible to know exactly what it's is doing without spending a fair amount of time to step through the code block it's in. Details. margin: vector of dimensions over which to form margins. Answer Save. INDEX. Buying on margin means you are investing with borrowed money. The Apply family comprises: apply, lapply , sapply, vapply, mapply, rapply, and tapply. The apply function in R is used as a fast and simple alternative to loops. To apply a predefined margin, select Layout > Margins and choose the predefined margin you want to use. Default value: 0: Inherited: no: Animatable: yes, see individual properties. Compute the sum of table entries over a given index. If n equals 1, apply returns a vector if MARGIN has length 1 and an array of dimension dim(X)[MARGIN] otherwise. –function is the function you want to apply to the elements of your variable. These functions allow crossing the data in a number of ways and avoid explicit use of loop constructs. margin.table {base} R Documentation: Compute table margin Description. So 1 stands for rows and 2 for columns. x: an array: margin: index number (1 for rows, etc.) … The horizontal ruler displayed below the Word menu provides another way to change the margins in your document. If n is 0, the result has length 0 but not necessarily the ‘correct’ dimension. Example Calculation. For example, to buy stock on margin, you must have at least 50% of the purchase price in your account. The apply() family pertains to the R base package and is populated with functions to manipulate slices of data from matrices, arrays, lists and dataframes in a repetitive way. CSS Margins. 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