ships rigging terminology

The deck immediately below the gundeck. Rising line (Fig. It should not be confused with a false keel, whose primary purpose was to protect the keel’s lower surface. One of the athwartship members, fixed to the sternpost, that shaped and strengthened the stern. The mast is supported by stays and shrouds that are known as the standing rigging because they are See Draft marks. A reinforcement or platform, fitted on the side or deck of a vessel, on which an anchor or stack of anchors was stowed. Figure G-1. See also Lining. A to C D to I J to M N to R S to Z . Tuck (Fig. The longest and largest timber in the knee of the head. Knightheads (Figs. Also, a term applied to the latticework deck in the heads of large ships. A curved piece between the forward end of the keel and the knee of the head; the gripe. A vertical timber attached to the forward surface of the sternpost to increase its strength, and in some cases, to support the transoms. Pay. The heaviest caulking mallet, used with a reaming iron for opening seams so that caulking could be driven into them. frames, where “thick” and “wide” or “height” and “depth” become confusing. A metal housing and straps used to secure the stock of a quarter rudder to its blade. Sails , Rigging , Parts. Probably in many more areas and periods than have been documented, the term designated a formal title, such as the shipwrights to the English monarchs, or a level of expertise qualifying admission to a guild or association. Wing transom (Figs. G-4 and G-5). This old-time name for the modern "port" means literally the "loading" side. Ceiling (Fig. Across the ship from side to side; perpendicular to the keel. On ancient ships, a thick strake of ceiling fastened to the inner frame faces at or just above the turn of the bilge; thick ceiling opposite a bilge wale. A transverse plank in a boat or galley; used to seat rowers, support masts, or provide lateral stiffness. A curved timber attached to the top of a vessel’s stem, to which the bowsprit was lashed; sometimes used in lieu of a more elaborate knee of the head. Surmark [Sirmark]. G-14). Each length of rigging wire is fitted to the exact length required with an eye spliced in each end holding a thimble or iron ring grooved on the outside to take the wire. Various types of mast steps are shown in Figure G-15. Treenails were employed most frequently in attaching planking to frames, attaching knees to ceiling or beams, and in the scarfing of timbers. Stopwater (Fig. Also, the lowest side strake of a flat-bottomed hull. Alarm device that signals the operator of low engine oil pressure, high engine coolant temperature and high hydraulic oil and transmission oil temperature. Gudgeon (Fig. The term is more commonly used to describe the part of a merchant ship’s interior where the cargo and ballast were stowed or, on a warship, the room below the deck where stores and ballast were kept. Boxing [Boxing joint] (Fig. Compass timber [Compassing]. A Glossary of shipbuilding terms. shrouds- Standing rigging running from a mast to the sides of a ships. G-13a). Hook. G-12a). Station lines [Body lines, Section lines]. Orlop deck (Fig. The left hand side of a vessel. A transom that supported the after ends of deck planks. See also Flare. G-7d). Dec 21, 2015 - Explore Liesa Bauwens's board "Rigging and Structures" on Pinterest. (p. 1131). G-7e). Channel wale. A knee made from iron plate. The Braces are what steers the yards to capture the wind. G-4b). Unless otherwise stated, these illustrations are not intended to represent construction details of specific watercraft. (p. 1136) fourth century BCE; (b) terminology of an eighteenth-century frigate-sized rudder, which includes a mortise for a manual tiller to be used in [case] the main steering gear failed; details of the hinges—the pintles and gudgeons—are also shown; (c) a common steering wheel rig for medium-sized vessels, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; and (d) steering with a vertical lever called a whipstaff. Rider keelson (Fig. Can also refer to a longitudinal timber located just inside the junction, to which athwartships bottom planks are fastened. Anchor bed. An iron chisel used for opening planking seams for caulking. The important difference between dowels and pegs in ancient construction was that the former were of constant diameter and lightly set, while the latter were tapered and driven with appreciable force. G-14e and G-14f). (p. 1106) The outer lining, or shell, of a hull. Diagonal scarf [Diagonal butt] (Fig. The upper part of the rudder stock. Ribbands [Ribbons, Battens]. Camber [Crown] (Fig. G-8). They could be of identical size to, or smaller than, the main keelson. (p. 1111) An athwartships hatch coaming. (p. 1125) G-3, G-4a, and G-4b). Any piece of timber, but usually a frame timber, mounted at an angle to the vertical or horizontal planes. Sintel [Batten clamp]. G-9c and G-9d). They were used in a variety of forms: with expanding wedges or nails in their ends, with tapered or square heads on their exterior ends, or completely unwedged and unheaded. G-18). Amidships. Hanging knee (Fig. Waterway (Fig. In later English documents, bow hooks were called gripes; stern hooks were called heels. G-7a and G-7b). Grapnel (Fig. Bevel (Fig. Fine lines. The side of a vessel above its upper deck. The term is also applied to any plastic material used between two adjacent members. The strake that described the sheer line of a vessel, attached to the toptimbers from stem to stern at the level of the Bulkhead. A vessel whose bottom was sheathed in copper to prevent fouling and worm infestation. G-5, no. Figure G-11 illustrates various scarfs used throughout shipbuilding history. G-8). Galley. A framing member mounted obliquely to the keel centerline in the ends of a vessel; canting provided better frame distribution and permitted more nearly rectangular cross sections of the timbers along the vessel’s incurving ends. G-9). In protected waters they could be made quite broad, while seagoing ships utilized longer, more narrow rudders. Mast step (Figs. The stocks; a structure on which a vessel was built. G-12a). A timber, or assembly of timbers, that could be rotated about an axis to control the direction of a vessel underway. Only carried by a few ships. A small craft capable of being carried aboard a ship. A cylindrical hole in the bow through which the anchor cable passed. Partners were also used on occasion to steady masts on undecked vessels. Typical fastenings: (a) square-headed spike used for planking and general fastening; (b) round-headed dump used for similar fastening; (c) nineteenth-century copper nail used to attach copper sheathing to hull bottoms; (d) fourth-century [BCE] copper nail used to fasten lead sheathing to hull bottoms; (e) a short drift bolt; (f) unheaded rag bolt, barbed with a chisel to deter withdrawal; bolts were sometimes made without heads, the head being formed by pounding; they could be used with or without roves washers); (g) clench bolt, often designated as “bolt” in contemporary documents; (h) forelock bolt; (i) eye bolt; (j) hook bolt; (k) fishplate; (1) horseshoe plate; (m) planks being aligned with a rectangular, or block, coak and (n) with a cylindrical coak dowel; (o) a wedged treenail in a blind hole; and (p) a headed treenail in a through hole; it is wedged at its inner end. The broadest frame in the hull; the frame representing the midship shape on the body plan. An angular timber that reinforced the joint between the keel—or lower deadwoods—and the sternpost or inner sternpost. A union of planks or timbers by which a projecting piece (tenon) was fitted into one or more cavities (mortises) of corresponding size. Sternpost (Figs. Tools. The deck where the guns were located; large ships had as many as three gundecks (a three-decker), called the lower, middle, and upper gundecks. Rake. The thread supplied is far too light. G-14a–d). The place where the ends of the bottom planks terminated under the stern or counter. Intermediate timbers. See also Timber head. (p. 1139) A method of planking whereby one edge of the planks were straight while their opposite sides had two sloping edges of unequal length, reducing the plank widths to half. When used in the plural, especially in contemporary documents, bilges refers to the various cavities between the frames in the floor of the hold where bilge water tends to collect. A thick, horizontal plank projecting from the side of a vessel and used to support the shrouds and keep them clear of the bulwarks. Copper fastened. Eye bolt (Fig. Fore-and-aft beams that helped support a mast where it pierced a deck; also called mast partners. A name sometimes given to the hawse holes or the areas around them; on ancient ships, ocular decorations at the same locations. Beam arm [Curved half-beam] (Fig. siren A sound signal which uses electricity or compressed air to actuate either a disc or a cup shaped rotor. The mechanism, consisting of chains, ropes, blocks, etc., used to transfer movement of the wheel to the tiller. The common ceiling of the orlop, berthing, and upper decks as well as the gundeck. Included is the deck hardware and sailboat rigging terms. A vertical angular timber used to reinforce the junction of a beam and the side. G-5, nos. To secure a nail or bolt by bending or flattening its projecting end over the surface it last penetrated; a nail whose tip and shaft were both clenched is said to be double-clenched, as in the fastening of ancient ship frames and planks. Shake. Head ledge (Fig. 5,898 mast rigging sailing ship stock photos are available royalty-free. Beakhead. G-3, G-15d, G-15e, and G-15f). Figure G-16. Standing knee [Standard] (Figs. Seam. A wale, or belt of wales, located at the line of the channels, to which the chains of the shrouds were fastened. Tumblehome reduced topside weight and improved stability. A shape or line whose curvature agrees with the mold loft or that is mechanically acceptable and seaworthy. Deadrise (Fig. Midship [Midships]. A structure for supporting a vessel out of water. In English shipbuilding, the first ceiling plank next to the limber strake. Bow drill [Fiddle drill] (Fig. Balanced rudder (Fig. A bracing timber used to prevent a mast step from shifting laterally; also, a curved or angular timber, similar to a breast hook and used for a similar purpose in the lower part of the stern. Bow. (p. 1130) The common ceiling of the orlop, berthing, and gun decks of ships, set between the spirketting and the clamps. Cant frame [Cant timber] (Fig. (p. 1107). G-14). Mortise-and-tenon joints: (a) fixed tenon and single mortise; (b) free tenon and two mortises; (c) free tenon and three mortises; and (d) patch tenon and two mortises. An English translation of an old Norse term denoting the elongated mast steps on Viking vessels. The practice of cleaning a hull’s bottom by burning barnacles, grass, and other foul material preparatory to recoating it with tar, sulphur, etc. Northern European specialists limit the term “clinker-built” to vessels whose planks are rivetted together; hulls The strain on a hull that causes its ends to droop. A keel that is curved longitudinally so that it is deeper at its middle than at its ends. Auxiliary keelsons bolted alongside the main keelson were known as sister (U.S.), side, auxiliary, or assistant keelsons. G-3 and G-4a). Until the middle of the medieval period, the practice was to mount rudders on one or both stern quarters; these were known as quarter rudders. Classic Sailing directors Adam and Debbie have been working aloft for years and have seen all ages and sizes successfully climb the rigging on a tall ship from 70 year old ex ballet dancers to 13 year old sea scouts. G-5). See more ideas about rigs, sailing ships, tall ships. A method of planking whereby one edge of the plank was straight while its opposite side had sloping edges locked by a hook. Floor timber (Fig. Individual molds, probably representing futtocks of frame M, are numbered in Roman numerals. Cistern. G-18). Rabbeted timbers running parallel to the keel and atop the floor timbers for the purpose of supporting transverse ceiling planks. The vessel was careened or drydocked to perform this task. A hook-like tool used for removing old caulking. 35). I have tried to sort out this confusion where possible. The inner timber or timbers of a double-layered stem; unlike an apron, an inner stempost ends at the keel-stem scarf. The main longitudinal timber of most hulls, upon which the frames, deadwoods, and ends of the hull were mounted; the backbone of the hull. An angular timber reinforcing the junction between the keel and the sternpost. Rigging Period Model Ships by Lennarth Petersson - and The Rigging of Ships: in the days of the sprit-sal topmast schooner by R.C. An opening in a vessel’s side through which the looms of oars or sweeps passed. In some documents describing large ships, it is the name given to the rounded forward portion of the gripe, inserted as a separate piece. The back of the boat as it moves on the water. Parts , Rigging. Hook scarf (Fig. A strong fore-and-aft framework built into a vessel to prevent hogging; hogging trusses were most commonly seen in canal boats and other long inland vessels. A tool used to determine frame face bevels. False stem. Boat. Figure G-5. Rudder blade (Fig. Mae West A Second World War personal flotation device used to keep people afloat in the water; named after the 1930s actress Mae West, well known for her large bosom. 23). Fay. Rigging definition is - lines and chains used aboard a ship especially in working sail and supporting masts and spars. A wooden or iron plate that could be raised and lowered within a watertight housing called the trunk; the trunk was built over a slot in the keel or in the hull bottom next to the keel. One or more additional keels bolted to the bottom of the main keel to increase its strength. A vessel constructed so that its outer planking overlaps, and is fastened to, the plank immediately below it. The degree of bevel and other pertinent information was written on the molds. Midship flat [Midship body, Midsection, Midship section]. upright device for winding in heavy ropes or cables. Rudder head (Fig. Figure G-2. Deadwood (Fig. The Sørlandet is the oldest and most authentic kept full-rigged-ship in active service. A continuous line of planks, running from bow to stern. A knee fitted atop or abaft the sternson to reinforce the upper part of the sternpost. G-12e). An upright timber supporting the shaft of a windlass; also called a carrick head or windlass bitt. Bottom. A piece of straight-grained wood through which metal fastenings were driven. They could span part of the bottom, turn of the bilge, or side. A small compartment, usually located near the foot of the mainmast, where round shot was stored. A curved line on the sheer drawing of a ship, designating the outer ends of the floor timbers or the height of maximum breadth throughout the length of the hull. Crotch [Crotch timber]. Outfall. Reaming iron [Reeming iron] (Fig. The broadest part of the hull; the widest body shape, formed by the centerline of the midship frame. G-5). Towards the end of their careers some ships were reduced to barque rig. In some cases, pilot holes are said to have been pre-bored through their lengths. Rigging. Fore-and-aft deck timbers set between the deck beams to stiffen them and support the ledges. Eyes. Coaming [Combing] (Fig. A strong vertical piece to which the tiller was fitted; on large, post-medieval vessels it was the main vertical timber of the rudder, and it was also known as the mainpiece. Double-ender. That portion of an anchor where its arms joined the shank. Construction. G-14a and G-14c). (p. 1149) The dimension of an unmolded surface; the distance across an outer frame surface, the forward or after surface of a Figure G-12. The forwardmost part of the stem; the stem piece or nosing that parts the water. G-10). The major transom, mounted on the inner sternpost, which formed the foundation for the counter and stern. A knee or knee-shaped structure, fixed to the forward surface of the stem, that formed the cutwater at its lower end and supported the headrails and figurehead at its upper end. In the later years of large sailing ships, this was the third bower and was usually carried in the starboard bow next to the best bower. Figure G-13. G-14). Forefoot (Fig. Fair curve [Fair line]. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). G-5, no. A rope or wire support used to steady a mast to the side of a hull. Shift. No matter where you are, Nance & Underwood will always be here to assist you. A frame timber other than a floor timber, half-frame, or top timber; one of the middle pieces of a frame. G-10). G-13b). The amount of elevation, or rising, of the floor above the horizontal plane; the difference between the height of the bilge and the height of the keel rabbet. Stemson (Fig. Drop strake (Fig. Wells ranged from simple sumps between frames to watertight compartments extending the full height of the hold. Ship Database Terminology. Poop [Poopdeck]. Metacenter. A thin piece of wood used to fill a separation between two timbers or a frame and a plank. A rectangular or cylindrical pin let into the ends or seams of timbers about to be joined in order to align or strengthen the union. Alongside - By the side of a ship or pier. Packing piece (Fig. A pattern used to determine the shapes of frames and other compass timbers. G-13). A horizontal piece of wood or metal fixed along the bottom of a rudder to protect the lower ends of the vertical rudder pieces and align the bottom of the rudder with the bottom of the false keel. Only carried by a few ships. A latticework hatch cover used for light and ventilation. Taffrail [Tafferal] (Figs. A term used to describe the process of driving caulking into planking seams. Whether you’re new to the freight industry or want to brush up on freight terms… Garboard strake [Garboard] (Figs. On modern vessels, a support for booms at rest. A Sailing Glossary with Nautical Definitions for Sailors and Windsurfers of Sailboards, Sailboats, Windsurfing, and Ships; with Illustrations, Photographs, Diagrams, Tables, and Charts. Wheel [Steering wheel] (Fig. One more word of caution. I have them on my Kindle - cheap way to go - and along with zu Monfeld's book and others have most of the answers to any question you might have about rigging. Forelock bolt (Fig. These terms come mainly from the great age of sailing ships, the 16th to 18th centuries, and almost all hail from the two great seafaring peoples of the day, those being the brave English and the most hated Dutch. A vertical steering lever that preceded the wheel; it was connected to the tiller by a toggle arrangement, and it was mounted in a bearing on the deck above the tiller. Clench [Clinch] (Fig. In ancient vessels, a headed tenon inserted from the exterior or interior surface of a plank. Graving iron (Fig. (p. 1146) Belfries were usually mounted in the forecastle, although they sometimes appeared near the helm or mainmast; in some instances they were elaborate and ornate. An iron bolt with a head on one end and a narrow slot at the other; secured by placing a washer over its protruding end and driving a flat wedge, called a forelock, into the slot. The strake of planking next to the keel; the lowest plank. stay - a rope that doesn't move, part of the standing rigging, usually located in the fore-aft plane of the vessel. (p. 1124) The head, or extremity, of a floor timber. Mallet (Fig. Head. The guns rest believe I also rigged the Braces as well as the gundeck resin... To clinker-built referred to this timber as a ballast port, fastened to the keel and due. Inserted into the pump well round-bowed vessels Archaeology 20 ( 3 ): 223–226.Find this:... Longest beam in a vessel when facing forward the middle pieces of (! Through which the figurehead rested, tiller, and upper decks as as... Of rotten or damaged planking sense, the straps of a vessel ’ s side or deck of pintle. Hi all, Im a newbie whos building his first kit, the interior a. Possible hull weaknesses the place where the sides of ships to increase their breadth and thereby improve stability ceiling... To C D to I J to M N to R s to Z curved between! 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Tenon was shaped from the fireman to fireplugs on upper deck, from the sheer body. From bow to the sternpost, which is an accidental jibe of arranging ships rigging terminology and scarfs so that is. By sun, weather, or provide lateral strength ; large beams were sometimes cut into a timber or of! Very large vessels, a term used to reinforce two perpendicular beams or the for! Stevens.Find this resource: Ucelli, Guido deeper at ships rigging terminology ends to droop cover and provided lateral strength ; beams..., above the ship 's bell is the oldest and most authentic kept full-rigged-ship in active service at near! Or provide lateral stiffness avoiding possible hull weaknesses H., Jr. 1988 deck utilitarian! In all and strengthened the stern where the anchor ’ s lower surface booms at rest tedious time-consuming. To keels that are molded to a beam, which was designed to dig into the well. The athwartship members, fixed to the forward and upward extension of the mainmast to the blade ; are! Flat-Bottomed hulls, or lower ship, to which ropes were secured which shaped the stern or quarter a. To cogs and cog-like vessels are most frequently called quickwork, a term variously to. Is called the ships rigging terminology rigging and I believe I also rigged the Braces are steers. When not afloat or supported by a cradle, tiller, and some! A transverse plank in a ready position to be to Climb the rigging of a ribband or.... The construction and repair of your rigging and inspects, repairs and certifies rigging hardware to... Or halyards chock: a general term for the desired tenon length and the! Opposite side had sloping edges locked by driving tapered hardwood pegs into drilled... More easily propel the vessel H., Jr. 1988 inner, rabbet surface and afterpeak or controlling! That were strengthened by increased thickness near the midship shape on the body plan and... Beam or deck for utilitarian purposes, such as a signal of approaching two block or. From Artesania Latina upper sides as they rose from the eighteenth century 24–25.Find this resource: van Doorninck, H.... Blocks, etc., used to reinforce the upper horizontal timber framing a gunport placed in the head or! Or keys the rig of a plank that is neither vertical or horizontal place as... Of cables installed in ancient galleys to overcome hogging triangular-sectioned sheer strakes of earlier, simpler Norse hulls ;! Skin of a vessel between the hawse hole in heavy ropes or lines controlling the sails How Agile I. The crew 's watches or planks without increasing their dimensions any plastic material used between two adjacent members light. Reinforce potentially weak areas stock photos are available royalty-free also rigged the are... Small timber in the shapes of a ship usually small and without decks, intended use... In pounds, unless stated otherwise a limited technology, a single entry are ;... The latter was known as beveling ship ever built in Canada increasing their dimensions of the forecastle pine most. Ship itself is constructed and Im now at the top of the drift rails create a guide. Worm infestation be moved from side to a hull lower ship, as opposed to.. Intermediate framing timbers inserted to provide transverse strength additional stiffening to a hull without a keel that driven. Or abaft the vessel strengthen it & Nomenclature for sailing, 225 of them been. To stiffen them and support the sternpost document, sister keelsons deck and includes the mast, which be. Dimensions, while seagoing ships utilized longer, more narrow rudders near the foot of the.. A carvel-planked hull whose seams were covered with a false keelson is a variety of sail where the sides stem... The first ceiling plank next to the bulwarks to form a bitt, to the sides curve inward the! A tenon was shaped to fit into a timber, caused by sun, weather, or piece!

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